The IAP CAS was established in 1964 as a continuation of the former Laboratory for Meteorology of the Geophysical Institute. In 1994, the former Ionospheric Dept. of the Geophysical Institute joined the IAP, thereby expanding the research domain. Recently the principal activity of the IAP is scientific research of the Earth’s whole atmosphere from the boundary layer to the magnetosphere and the exploration of its space environment, monitoring and special measurements, their processing and transfer into worldwide data networks, and the development of special instruments for ground-based measurements and different Earth observing satellite missions. The IAP acquires processes and disseminates scientific information and issues scientific publications (monographs, journals, proceedings, etc.). It provides scientific assessments, professional opinions and recommendations, consulting and advisory services. In cooperation with universities, the IAP carries out doctoral study programs and provides training for young scientists. Within the scope of its activity, the IAP promotes international cooperation, including the organization of joint research projects with foreign partners, participation in exchange programmes for scientists and the exchange of scientific information. The IAP organises scientific meetings, conferences and seminars at the national and international levels and provides the infrastructure for research. To realize the complex atmospheric research, the IAP joints together five observatories: three meteorological observatories (one of them, the observatory Milesovka is in operation for more than 110 years), Pruhonice ionospheric observatory, which is in operation since 1958, and one satellite telemetry station) and operates five national and international CDSS networks. IAP also operates mirror site of the World Digisonde Database (DIDBase), the HPC facility Amalka and runs one of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) Regional Warning Centers for Space Weather - RWC Prague.