EISCAT Scientific Association is an international organisation conducting fundamental research in the upper atmosphere and the interactions between the Earth and space. It was established in 1976 and has successfully operated powerful ionospheric incoherent scatter radars in northern Fenno-Scandinavia since 1981, and on Svalbard since 1996. The present EISCAT systems are fully integrated in a global network of incoherent scatter radars. It is funded and operated by research councils and funding organisations in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Japan, China, and the United Kingdom. EISCAT is registered as a non-profit organisation (ideell förening) in Sweden, with headquarters located in Kiruna, Sweden.