Multipoint observation by a network of ionosondes can detect and characterize large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs), providing dominant period, and velocity and direction of propagation of the disturbance. Multi instrument observation (ionosondes and GNSS data) serve to validate and assess the detection and tracking of LSTIDs (e.g. Altadill et al., 2020).



Left plots show a LSTID detected and characterized by the European network of ionosondes for given epochs where the arrows and the numbers indicate the direction and the velocity of propagation respectively. Right plots depict snapshots of the perturbation TEC maps clearly showing a wave-like disturbance structure propagating in the North-to-South direction.


Reference: Altadill D, Segarra A, Blanch E, Juan JM, Paznukhov VV, et al. 2020. A method for real-time identification and tracking of traveling ionospheric disturbances using ionosonde data: first results. J. Space Weather Space Clim. 10, 2.